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Osco-Umbrian (Eastern Italic), Latin, "Picene", Continental Celtic (Gaulish), Pre-Gaulish, "Pelasgian", "Liguro-Sicanian", Central Illyrian-Pannonian, Messapian, Punic, Venetic, Daco-Mysian, Vasco-Iberian

Osco-Umbrian (Eastern Italic)

One of the widest linguistic strata in Old Italy was that of the "Eastern Italics". The Umbrians were one of the oldest Italian population, as they probably descended from the earliest inhabitants of the peninsula. Their territory originally comprised the whole Central Apennines, however, they had to contemplate the arrival of several groups of foreigners, like the Pelasgians in the 14th century BC and the Tyrrhenians in the 10th century BC. As a consequence, several territories and cities were lost, until the Umbrians were reduced to the historical Umbria only. On the other side of the Tiber, a small remnant of the Umbrians mixed with Etruscans and Latins only to be known as Falisci in Roman times.

However, the Umbrian linguistic stock found new possibilities more south. The Sabines, a population akin to the Umbrians, was settled until the 7th century BC in the high valley of the Aterno. Possibly, this group was a branch of the Umbrians that was separated from the motherland by the Aborigines of the Reate's plains. Starting from the 7th century BC, the Sabines expanded themselves at the expenses of the Aborigines. The newly acquired lands favoured a growth of the Sabine population, which made necessary a new practice. In times of famines and wars with the new neighbours Umbrians, it became necessary to periodically expel groups of people from the land, sending them to colonize new territories. This practice was known to the Romans as ver sacrum 'sacred spring'.

During their sacred springs, the Sabines encircled the Latins in the south-west and settled in the present-day Ciociaria, originating to the Hernici and Volsci peoples. In the East, the Sabines followed the Tronto valley reaching the Adriatic sea, where they became Piceni. To the South, the Sabines spred in the Abruzzese valleys giving place to several small peoples, namely, Vestini, Paeligni, Marsi, Aequi, Marrucini, Frentani.

Even more south, the Sabines found the highlands of the Central-Southern Apennines almost empty. Here they had not to fight with earlier inhabitants and they gave place to one of the fiercest populations of the pre-Roman Italy. The Samnites were the great competitors of Rome for the conquest of all Italy. In their turn, the Samnites originated the Lucani, and these originated the Bruttii. Moreover, other neighbouring peoples were culturally and linguistically influenced by the Samnites who spoke the Oscan languages.

In the 4th century BC the series of Oscan-speaking populations went from the Abruzzi (Frentani) to the Calabria (Bruttii), including the Samnite tribe proper (Pentri, Carricini, Caudini, and Hirpini), the Sidicini, the Campani, the Alfaterni, the Lucani. An Oscan-speaking colony was established and lasted around twenty years in the Sicilian city of Messina.


The voiced and voiceless stops are conserved, the aspirated voiceless stops gave f both at the beginning of the word and in the middle of the word


In Samnium, Aesernia for the possible dyphthong development *oi>ai, Aufidena and Fagifulae and Tifernus fl. and Corfinium and Cerfennia and Aufinum and Furfo for the intervocalic f, Bovianum for the development *gw>b, Trebula and Trebula Mutuesca for the existence of a related term, Teate and Reate and Aveia (?) for the dyphthong development *ei>e, Fucinus lac. for the initial f and the dyphthong development *eu>ou, Fiscellus m. for the initial f and the typical suffix -ell-. Probably (if not Western Italic), also Foruli and Ficulea and Fresilia for the initial f, Cingilia and Interocrium for the existence of related terms, Gurgures m. for the development of sonant r into ur

In Picenum (if not Western Italic) Falerio for the initial f, Helvillus fl. for the development *g'h>h

In Umbria Aesis fl. for the possible dyphthong development *oi>ai, Ameria for the rotacism *s>r, Cursula for the development of sonant r into ur, Fulginiae for the development of sonant l into ul, Helvillum and Hispellum for the development *g'h>h, Ocriculum and Trebiae and Tuder and Sarsina and Sestinum for the existence of related terms, Tifernum Tiberinum and Tifernum Metaurense for the intervocalic f, Paesinum for the development *kw>p. Possibly (if not Gaulish), also Ostra for the O-grade

In Etruria Ferentum and Falerii and Faesulae and Fregenae for the initial f, Visentium for (...), Biturgia for the shift *gw>b, Sena and Vesidia fl. for the dyphthong development *ei>e, Fescennia for the initial f and the dyphthong development *ei>e, Volaterrae for the existence of related terms, Horta for the development *g'h>h. Possibly (if not "Pelasgian") also Regae for the conservation of g

In Latium Aefula and Afilae and Aufentus fl. for the intervocalic f, Tibur and Treba and Cominium for the existence of a related term, Arpinum for the development *kw>p, Setia for the dyphthong development *ei>e. Possibly (if not Western Italic) also Ficulea and Fidenae and Fabrateria and Ferentinum and Fregellae and Frusino and Formiae for the initial f, Trebula Suffenas for the existence of a related term

In Campania Trifanum and Tifata m. and *Alfateria and Allifae and Rufrae and Venafrum for the intervocalic f, Atella and Nola and Pompeii and Nuceria Alfaterna and Trebula Balliensis for the existence of a related term, Teanum Sidicinum for the development *ei>e. Possibly (if not Western Italic) also *Falernum for the initial f, Suessa and Sinuessa and Suessula for the consonant cluster

In Hirpinia Tuticum and Taurasia for the existence of a related term, Compsa for the consonant cluster, Fratuolum and Fertor fl. for the initial f, Aufidus fl. and Furfane and Alfella for the intervocalic f, Teanum for the dyphthong development *ei>e

In Apulia Forentum for the initial f

In Bruttium Aufugum for the intervocalic f, Consentia for the existence of a related term

In Gallia Cispadana Crustumius fl. for the existence of toponymical counterparts

(Proto-)Latin and Siculian (Western Italic)

The first toponymy traces in ancient Latium must be attributed to the Siculi, a population belonging to a stock reconstructed as Western-Italic. In the same period, the Aborigines took the place of the Umbrians in the area of Reate. The Aborigines also spoke a Western-Italic language, as toponymy confirms. At the end of the 14th century BC, the Aborigines expelled the Siculi from the Latium with the help of the Pelasgians arrived from Anatolia. Later, in the 12th century BC, the Aborigines were integrated by a group known in classical sources as the "Trojans" of Aeneas. The result of this mixing of populations gave origin to the Latins of Alba Longa and later of Rome. The Latin stratum in Latium's place names is indeed the second most ancient revealed by toponymy.

The Siculi expelled from Latium followed a long path to the south, towards their historical motherland, Sicily. The march lasted about sixty years. A stratum of Western-Italic place names is indeed traceable across the southern Tyrrhenian shores, from southern Latium to Campania and Calabria. This stratum can be attributed to the scarcely known peoples of the Ausoni and the Opici, which should be interpreted as remnants of the Long March of the Siculi, in agreement with the report of Dionysus of Halicarnassus

According to the reconstruction of the Italian scholar G. Devoto, this is a second IE wave, besides the Osco-Umbrian or Eastern Italic, to have crossed the whole peninsula. He associates this stratum with the Proto-Villanovian culture and the incineration use. The name "Western Italic" is actually given by Devoto to the branch that I prefer to call "Liguro-Sicanian", to which he includes the language of the Siculi.

I would distinguish between the language of the Siculi, close to Latin and then belonging to this group, and the language of the Sicani, almost unknown, which I include in the branch "Liguro-Sicanian" (see below). Moreover, I would include the Opici (Ausones) of the Campania in this branch rather than in the "Liguro-Sicanian" one. Therefore, the Western Italic branch includes, for me, the Proto-Latins, the Siculi and the Ausones who, according to Dionysius, passed to Sicily from the Bruttium.


The placenames of this branch can be distinguished from the Eastern Italic or Osco-Umbrian ones because the IE aspirated voiced remain as unaspirated voiced in the middle of the word, while become f in the beginning. Then, following L. R. Palmer, the names Stabiae and Allibae in Campania belong to the language of the Opici. Many other traits are in common with the Eastern Italic branch.


In Samnium Fabaris fl. for the initial f but intervocalic b. Possibly (if not "Daunian") also Duronia for the shift *dh>d, Aquilonia for the preservation of *kw>k

In Picenum (if not Eastern Italic) Falerio for the initial f, Helvillus fl. for the development *g'h>h

In Etruria possibly (if not "Pelasgian") Albinia fl. and Heba for the shift *bh>b, Algae for the shift *gh>g. Possibly (if not Eastern Italic) also Ferentum and Falerii and Fregenae for the initial f

In Latium Alba Longa and Albula fl. and Albunea and Cabum and Norba for the shift *bh>b, Ferentum and Ficana for the initial f, Gabii for the shift *bh>b and the preservation of *gw>g, Algidus m. and Aricia and Bovillae and Bubentum and Camerium and Cingulum and Corbio and Lanuvium and laurentum and Lavinium and Ostia and Pedum and Pometia and Praeneste and Tellenae and Antemnae and Caenina and Collatia and Corniculum and Nomentum and Verrugo and Capitulum Hernicum for the existence of a related term. Possibly (if not Eastern Italic) also Crustumerium for the existence of a related term, (if not "Liguro-Sicanian") also Tarracina for the preservation of *kw>k

In Campania possibly (if not Eastern Italic) Stabiae for the shift *bh>b

In Bruttium Baletum and Besidiae and Blanda and Medma and Lagaria for the preservation of voiced stops

In Sicilia Gela and Mactorium and Capytium and Casmenae and Catana and Centuripae and Tauromenium for the existence of a related term (in Latin), Herbessus for the shift *gh>h


Before the expansion of the Sabini in the 9th century BC, the middle Adriatic coasts were inhabited by a people that we called here "proto-Picene", which only left traces in the toponymy. The Novilare stele is more recent and should not be attributed to the proto-Picene stratum.


In Samnium Terventum and *Atessa and *Treste fl. and *Trinius fl. and Aternus fl. and *Tirinus fl. for the shift *d>t, Buca for the shifts *bh>b and *g>k. Possibly (if not Western Italic) also Duronia for the shift *dh>d, Aquilonia for the preservation of *kw

In Picenum Cupra and Cupra Montana and Pausulae for the shift *b>p, Tolentinum and Truentus fl. and Matrinus fl. for the shift *d>t. Possibly (if not Western Italic) also Albula fl. and Beregra, for the shift *bh>b

Continental Celtic (Gaulish)

Between the 7th and the 6th century BC several Gaulish tribes living on the northern side of the Alps moved toward different directions to overcome overpopulation problems. Northern Italy was one of the preferred destinations. Seven tribes (Biturigi, Averni, Senoni, Edui, Ambarri, Carnuti, and Aulerci) crossed the Western Alps and crushed the Ligures and the Etruscans. Later in the 6th-5th century BC other tribes followed the example, Cenomani, Libui and Salluvi. The Boii and Lingoni, having found the Po plains already occupied, crossed the river and settled in present-day Emilia, from whence they expelled Etruscans and Umbrians. Lastly, the Senoni found available only the most remote Romagna that became the Ager Gallicus.

When the wave of the seven tribes reached Lombardy, they found there other Celtic peoples, the Insubri. This population was probably originated by the most ancient inhabitants of the area, belonging to a Celtic but not Gaulish stock. Probably these Cisalpine Celts occupied originally most of Northern Italy including Liguria (where they mixed with Ligures to give place to the Celto-Ligures) the and they spoke a language close or corresponding to the Lepontic. Corsica as well may have had a pre-Gaulish Celtic stratum.


In Picenum possibly Ricina for the disappearing of initial p and the development of sonant r into ri

In Umbria Sena Gallica and Sentinum and Crinivolum and Vindinum for the existence of related terms, Dola for the shift *dh>d. Possibly (if not Eastern Italic), also Ostra for the O-grade

In Etruria Bondelia for the existence of a related term.

In Liguria Bodetia and Comberanea fl. and Ricina and Segesta Tigulliorum and Vindupale fl. and Bodincomagus and Odubria fl. for the existence of related terms. Possibly (if not pre-Celtic) also Albingaunum and Albintimilium and Alba Docilia and Alba Pompeia, Bersula fl. and Bodincus fl. for the preservation of *bh>b

In Gallia Tranpadana Duria fl. for the preservation of *dh>d, Taurasia and Eporedia and Novaria and Rigomagus and Vercellae and Laumellum and Retovium and Mediolanum and Ollius fl. and Oscela and Leucera for the existence of related terms.

In Gallia Cispadana Litubium for the disappearance of initial *p, Bononia and Brixellum and Rhenus fl. for the existence of related terms, Bedesis fl. and Celeia for the existence of toponymical counterparts

In Venetia et Histria Ariolica and Benacus lac. and Brixia and Belunum and Carraca and Tarvisium and Artenia and Broxas for the existence of related terms.

In Pannonia Arrabo fl. and Brigetio and Carrodunum and Cetius m. and Cocconis and Noviodunum and Siscia and Vindobona and Adnamantia and Bononia and Singidunum and Solva for the existence of a related apellative, Bolentium and Botivo and Colapis fl. and Poetovio and Visontium and Bolia fl. and Gorsium for the O-grade

In Gallia Narbonensis Vintium, Arelate, Bellintum, Glanum, Matavo, Carbantorate, Acunum, Arausio, Senomagus, Gaura m., Noviomagus, Vasium, Cambonum, Ictodurum, Catuiacia, Segustero, Eburodunum, Caturigomagus, Alpes Cottiae, Matrona m., Brigantio, Gesabona, Rama, Segusio, Durotincum, Metlosedum, Caturissium, Condate, Bergusium, Cularo, Lemincum, Mantala, Turedonnum, Bergintrum, Brigetia, Magalona, *Venedubrium, Vindomagus, Atax fl., Eburomagus, Sostomagus, Tasgodunum, Vernodubrus fl. and Vernosolis for the existence of a related term, Rhodanus fl. for the absence of initial *p, Alabons and Obilonna for the O-grade

In Gallia Lugdunensis Lugdunum, Mediolanum (Segusiavorum), *Renus fl., Aballo, Augustodunum, Bibracte, *Dubina fl., *Gravona fl., Matisco, Noviodunum (Haeduorum), Pocrinium, Sidolocum, Andematunnum, Dibio, *Lagina fl., Segessera, Segobodium, Augustobona, Corobilium, Autessiodurum, Bandritum, Brivodurum, Condate (Senonorum), Eburobriga, *Iagonia fl., Metlosedum, Salioclita, Vellaunodunum, *Vosegia fl., Anderitum, Nemetodurum, Diodurum, Breviodurum, Briva Isarae, Ritumagus, Ratumagus, Gravinum, Iuliobona, Condate (Aulercorum), Mediolanum (Aulercorum), Noviomagus, Aregenua, Augustodurum, Briovera, Cosedia, Condate (Redonorum), Aregenua fl., Darioritum, Duretia, Vindana p., Brivates p., Iuliomagus, Robrica, Segora, Vindinum, Noviodunum (Aulercorum), Vagoritum, Argentomagus, Caesarodunum for the existence of a related term, Arciaca, Agedincum, Tasciaca, Gesocribate, Sulis for the existence of a related personal name, *Cosia fl., Rodomna, Oscara fl., Olina fl. for the O-grade, *Itta fl., Herius fl., *Ituna fl. for the absence of initial *p, *Viria fl. for the shift e(long) > i(long), Sipia for the shift kw > p

In Gallia Aquitania Ernodurum, Uxellodunum, Argantomagus, Mediolanum (Biturigum), Neriomagus, Cantilia, Acitodunum, Augustoritum, *Blatomagus, Briva Curretia, Cassinomagus, Ariolica, Augustonemetum, Briva, Eburolacum, Anderitum, Condate, Carantomagus, Condatomagus, Segodunum, Condate, Mediolanum Santonum, Novioregum, Diolindum, Ratiatum, Noviomagus, Varatedum, Salomagus, Lugdunum Convenarum for the existence of a related term

In Noricum Candalicae, Gavanodurum, Gesodunum, Graviacae, Littamum, Matucaium, Ragando, Tasinemetum, Arlape fl., Artobriga, Bedaium, Boiodurum, Ernolatia, Gabromagus, Tragisama fl., Tutatio for the existence of related terms, Monate, Canabiaca, Laciacum, Lauriacum, Stiriate, Stanacum for a typical suffix

In Raetia Agaunum, Octodurum, Pennolucos, Curia, Magia, Cambodunum, Sorviodurum for the existence of related terms, Abodiacum, Coveliacae, Masciacum, Tasgetium, Iciniacum for a typical suffix


Under this label we tentatively group those names of historically Celtic regions that cannot be Gaulish (e.g., for the presence of an initial p, not they show the typical Ligurian consonant shift. Not proveably Celtic, this language stratum was actually an A-language.


In Liguria Berigiema m. for the different realization than a Gaulish term, Blustiemelum iug. and Caeptiema and Lebriemelus fons and Man(n)icelus fons for related suffixes, Porcobera fl. for the preservation of initial *p

In Gallia Transpadana Bergomum for the different realization than a Gaulish term

In Gallia Cispadana Gabellus fl. for the existence of toponymical counterparts

In Gallia Narbonensis Cemenelum, Mastramela stagnum for the typical suffix, Avennio for the shift *gw > v, Arar fl., Darantasia, *Alestum (if not Ligurian), Narbo, Caucoliberis, Carcasum, Badeia, Nemausus for the A-grade

In Gallia Lugdunensis *Aronus fl. for the A-grade

In Noricum Aenus fl., Anisus fl. for the A-grade

In Raetia *Ilara fl., *Isara fl. for the A-grade


The Pelasgians, skilled sailors, were among the most ancient inhabitants of Greece. They spoke a pre-Greek IE language, clearly recognized by the Bulgarian scholar V. Georgiev. Having fled from Greece in the 14th century BC, they landed on the shores of northern Adriatic and later found their way through central Italy, helping the Aborigines against the Siculi, and settling in the formerly Umbrian southern Etruria. Later, in the 13th century BC bands of Pelasgian left their settlements and migrated back to the Eastern Mediterranean, towards Greece, Palestine, where they became known as Philistines, and Egypt. In this counter-exodus, the Pelasgians were somehow associated with the Tyrrhenians, meanwhile become Etruscans, so that the ancient sources often make confusion between the two peoples. The Tyrrhenians took the place of the Pelasgians in Etruria and they received their name as well from those: Tyrrhenian is indeed a Pelasgian name meaning "tower-builder".

In our reconstruction, the origin of the Etruscans or Tyrrhenians was ultimately a region in Anatolia, under the control of the Hittites in the 16th century BC. A group speaking a Hurro-Urartean language with Anatolian IE influences fled from famine and landed in Sardinia, then inhabited by a Liguro-Sicanian population. In Sardinia, the newcomers gave impulse to the civilization characterized by the construction of the nuraghes, to such an extent that they became known to the Pelasgi of Etruria as the "tower-builders", i.e., Tyrrhenians. Ultimately, the Tyrrhenians replaced the Pelasgians in Etruria in the X century BC and were renamed by the Italics as Etruscans.

The Etruscan influence was extended outside Etruria in the Po valley and in Campania. The Etruscan presence in the Po valley was later annihilated by the Gaulish tribes in the 5th-4th century BC.


In Etruria Caere and Cremera fl. and Tarquinia and Volci for the shift *g>k, Sutrium for the shift *d>t, Agylla and Graviscae and Igilium i. for the shift *gh>g, Albinia fl. and Blera and Heba and Salebro (if not Western Italic) for the shift *bh>b, Pyrgi for the dissimilation of the aspirated voiced stops, the shifts *b>p and *g'h>g and the development of sonant r into ur, Corythus for the shift *gw>k, Umbro fl. for the development of sonant m into um

In Latium Thybris fl. for the shifts *t>th and *bh>b

In Gallia Cispadana Otesia and Utis fl. for the shift *d>t, Sapis fl. for the shift *b>p


This stratum has been postulated by the Italian scholar G. Devoto. Based on some placenames or ethnical names or even terms in known languages, he reconstructed an old IE stock that at the beginning of the Bronze age occupied the Tyrrhenian side of Italy, along with Sicily and Sardinia. After several waves of migrations, these earlier peoples eventually disappeared from the ethnic map of Italy. In the north, the Ligures were celtized by the cisalpine Celts giving origin to the Celto-Ligurian stock. Along the coasts of the peninsula, the Italics and later the Pelasgians broke the linguistic unity between the Ligures and the Oenotri, assimilating the intermediate Rutuli of Latium. In the south, the Oenotri of Lucania and Bruttium (with their sub-branches Morgeti and Choni), as well as the Sicani of Sicily, were endangered first by the advance of the Western Italics (Siculi) and later by the arrival of the Greek colonists. The Ligurian-speaking population of Sardinia had somehow a better luck, since they reached a substantially higher cultural level after the arrival of the Tyrrhenians from Anatolia in the 16th century BC.



In Latium Artena and Astura fl. for the shift *dh>t, Clanis fl. for the shift *g'h>k, Cosa fl. for the shift *gh>k. Possibly (if not Western Italic) also Tarracina for the preservation of *kw>k

In Campania Savo fl. and Sarnus fl. for the A-grade, Acerrae for the shift *k>kh, Clanius fl. for the shift *gh>k

In Bruttium Aprustum for the shift *bh>p, Crathis fl. and Crotalus fl. and Croto for the shifts *gh>k and *dh>t

In Sicilia Acithius fl. and Helcethium and Symaethus fl. and Thymethus fl. for the shift *t>th, Schera and Achates fl. and Ichana and Imachara for the shift *k>ch, Tyracinae and Aetna m. for the shift *dh>t, Pergus lac. for the shift *bh>p

In Sardinia Caralis and Cornus for the shift *g'h>k, Thyrsus fl. for the shift *dh>t(h). Probably also Gorditanum pr. and Gurulis for the preservation of *g, Saralapis for the A-grade

In Liguria Alpes m. and *Apua and Padus fl. for the shift *bh>p, Rutuba fl. for the shift *dh>t

In Gallia Transpadana Melpum for the shift *bh>p

In Gallia Cispadana Parma for the shift *bh>p

In Gallia Narbonensis Varus fl., Caenus fl. and Arar fl. (if not pre-Gaulish) for the A-grade

Central Illyrian-Pannonian

Present-day Apulia was inhabited in the Bronze age by the Iapyges, a people of uncertain ascendance. Since the 12th century the Iapygians were opposed by two distinct waves of immigrants, the Dauni from Dalmatia, settling in the north, and the Messapi that settled in the south. The only non-assimilated Iapygian tribe in central Apulia was given the name of Poediculi or Peuceti. In contrast, the Iapygians left isolated in the extreme north of Apulia were assimilated by the Eastern Italics under the name of Apuli. Either the Dauni or the Iapygians left a Central Illyrian toponymy stratum in Apulia. A distinct stratum is easily attributed to the Messapians in the south.


PIE *p was preserved, contrarily to Celtic languages. Sonant liquids and nasals develops into ul, ur, un, um. Aspirated voiced stops are deaspirated. An A-language, i.e. PIE *o>a. A centum-language, contrarily to, i.e., Daco-Mysian. Typical suffixes (-on-, -isi-, -ini-, -st-, -nt-). A probably distinguishing feature of the Central Illyrian language was the development of initial *a- into ia-.


In Apulia Cerbalus fl. for the preservation of intervocalic *bh, Herdoniae for the preservation of intervocalic *dh, Sipuntum and Butuntum and Brundisium and Hydruntum for the development of sonant n into un, Stulni for the development of sonant l into ul, Iapyx fl. for the initial ia-. Probably (if not Messapian) also Barium for the preservation of intervocalic *bh

In Illyricum Argyruntum and Pituntium and Siparuntum and Diluntum and Salluntum for the development of sonant n into un, Aenona and Blanona and Narona and Salona for a typical suffix, Iader for the initial ia-, Stulpi for the development of sonant l into ul, Mucurum and Burnum for the development of sonant r into ur, Acruvium for the centum nature

In Pannonia Andautonia and Aquae Balisae and Celemantia and Dravus fl. and Lepavista and Ramista and Savaria fl. and Savus fl. and Valcum and Valdasus fl. and Alisca and Malata and Carpis and Marsonia for Tarsium for the A-grade, Curta and Burgenae and Mursa and Teutoburgium for the development of sonant r into ur, Vinundria for the development of sonant n into un.

In Epirus Amantia and Bacusta and Marusium and Patapa and Pupsalus and Scampis for the A-grade, Genusus fl. for the centum nature.



In Apulia *Argetium and Aezetium and Balesium and Uretum and Aletium and Uzentum and Neretum and Veretum for the typical development of the suffix, Manduria for the existence of a related term. Possibly (if not "Illyrian") also Rudiae and Carbinium and Norba and Basta and Rudiae for the preservation and de-aspiration of voiceless stops.


The Punic language was introduced in Italy's toponymy by the Carthaginians that dominated the coasts of Sicily and especially Sardinia from the 6th century BC.


In Sardinia Bithia and Macopsissa and *Macomades and Othoca for the existence of related terms.


The toponymy confirms that the Venetic stratum is likely the most ancient of the present-day Veneto region. The report of Livy about a pre-Venetic people called the Euganei is to be interpreted as a late cultivated story.


In Venetia et Histria Opitergium and Aesontius fl. and Ocra m. for the features of an O-language, Formio fl. and Flamonia for the shift *bh>f, Liquentia fl. and *Quarquenum for the preservation of *kw, Vicetia for the typical suffix. Possibly (if not Etruscan) also Feltria for the shift *bh>f.

In Illyricum Flanona and Fulfinium and Fertina for the presence of a f, Ortopla, Clambetae for the existence of a similar toponym in a related domain.



A satem-language. An A-language, i.e., PIE *o>a. Sonant liquids and nasals variously vowelized with a or u.


In Illyricum Asamum and Pasinum and Birziminium for the satem shift *k'>s, Thermidava for the existence of a related term.

In Epirus Saso i. for the satem shift *g'h>s.



In Gallia Narbonensis Iliberris for the existence of related terms.

In Gallia Aquitania Aspaluca, Iluro, Lapurdum, Elimberris, probably Belsinum for the existence of related terms.