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Noricum

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The Roman province of Noricum was bordered on the north by the Danube river, on the west by the Aenus river and Raetia, on the south by the Alps (with some parts south of them) and Italy (Transpadana and Venetia), on the east by Pannonia. Noricum was thus located over the territory of present-day Austria, with small parts in Italy, Germany, and Slovenia.

Its original inhabitants were of unknown stock. A kingdom flourished there in the 2th century B.C., at which time the region was mainly populated by Celtic tribes, among which the Taurisci, also called Norici. Noricum was incorporated by Rome in 16 B.C. Under Diocletian, the province of Noricum was divided into Noricum Mediterraneaum (southern part) and Noricum Ripense (northern part bordering the Danube).

Common remarks: the place-names have been put in the nominative case, an asterisk * means not attested, reconstructed form. The late place-names of probable Latin origin have not been included. The IE roots are in the form given by Pokorny's Indogermanische Wörterbuch. The links will be active when the single pages will be published, see the main page. For any comment, suggestion, email me.

Noricum

Noricum Mediterraneum

Adrans

Aguntum

Beliandrum
  • Place: possibly by Zweinitz, state Kärnten, Austria
  • Name: Beliandrum (Peut.)
  • Etymology: Explained by [Delamarre, p. 74] as *Belianderum 'domain of Belianderos', from a Celtic personal name.

Candalicae

Celeia

Colatio

Gavanodurum
  • Place: not identified, Austria
  • Name: Gavanodurum (Ptol.)
  • Etymology: A clear Celtic compound name, whose second element is the same as Gaulish duron 'market', although the first element is unclear.

Gesodunum
  • Place: not identified, Austria
  • Name: Gesodunum (Ptol.)
  • Etymology: For [Delamarre, p. 154] to be reconstructed as *Gaisodunum, which would be a Celtic compound name, with gaiso- 'spear' and dunon 'castle'.

Graviacae

Idunum
  • Place: not identified, Austria
  • Name: Idunum (Ptol.)
  • Etymology: Phonetics unclear, cf. [Delamarre, p. 163].

Immurium
  • Place: Moosham, Unternberg, state Salzburg, Austria
  • Name: in Murium (Peut.)
  • Etymology: Unclear.

Iuenna

Littamum

Loncium
  • Place: Mauthen, Kötschach-Mauthen, state Kärnten, Austria
  • Name: Loncium (It. Ant.)
  • Etymology: Reconstructed by [Delamarre, p. 180] as Longium and explained as 'the domain of Longius'.

Matucaium
  • Place: Treibach, Althofen, state Kärnten, Austria
  • Name: Matucaium (Peut.)
  • Etymology: Explained [Anreiter, Delamarre, p. 194] as a Celtic compound name *matu-caion, from matu- 'bear' (possibly as a personal name) and ca(g)jon 'hedge, fence', which is from the IE root *kagh-io- 'to sew, plait, etc.'.

Monate
  • Place: Nussdorf, Sankt-Georgen-ob-Judenburg, state Steiermark, Austria
  • Name: Monate (It. Ant.)
  • Etymology: Interpreted [Delamarre, p. 200] as 'domain of Monos' from an attested personal name Monus. The suffix -ate actually formed placenames from personal names in a wide ex-Celtic, then Romance domain.

Noreia

Poedicum
  • Place: Bruck-an-der-Mur, state Steiermark, Austria
  • Name: Poedicum (Ptol.)
  • Etymology: Unclear.

Ragando
  • Place: Spodnje Grus^ovje, Slovenske Konjice, Slovenia
  • Name: Ragindo (It. Ant., Burd.) Ragando (Peut.)
  • Etymology: Analyzed by [Delamarre, p. 217] as *ro-gandon 'place where crockery is sold', from a Celtic *gand- 'vessel'.

Sabatinca
  • Place: possibly Sankt-Johannes-am-Tauern, Pölstal, state Steiermark, Austria
  • Name: Sabatinca (It. Ant.)
  • Etymology: Tentatively explained [Delamarre, p. 225] as 'domain of a *Sabatincos', from an unattested personal name without clear etymology.

Saloca

Santicum

Sebatum
  • Place: San Lorenzo di Sebato/Sankt Lorenzen, province Bolzano/Bozen, Italy
  • Name: Sebatum (It. Ant.)
  • Etymology: Tentatively related to the IE root *sebh- 'tribe', with a possible meaning of 'assembly'.

Flavia Solva

Tarnasicum

Tasinemetum

Teurnia

Upellis
  • Place: Sara Vas, Velenje, Slovenia
  • Name: Upellis (Peut.)
  • Etymology: Difficult to explain as Celtic due to the preservation of the intervocalic P if from the IE root *upo- 'under'. However, it could reflect the Celtic shift *kw > p and derive, for instance, from the IE root *wekw- 'to speak, to sound out' as a hydronym.

Vacorium

Vipitenum
  • Place: Vipiteno/Sterzing, province Bolzano/Bozen, Italy
  • Name: Vipitenum (It. Ant.) Vepitenum (Peut.)
  • Etymology: Unknown. It has often been related to the Etruscan gentilice vipitene and it could be definitely Rhaetian.

Virunum
  • Place: Maria Saal, Zollfeld, state Kärnten, Austria
  • Name: Virunum (Plin., Ptol., It. Ant., Peut.)
  • Etymology: Explained by [Delamarre, p. 274] with positing a reconstructed personal name *Virunos.

Viscellis
  • Place: possibly Möderbrugg, Pölstal, state Steiermark, Austria
  • Name: Viscellis (Peut.)
  • Etymology: Explained by [Delamarre, p. 274] with positing a reconstructed personal name *Viscellos.

Noricum Ripense

Aenus fl.

Albianum
  • Place: not proveably Ebbs, state Tirol, Austria
  • Name: Albianum (It. Ant.)
  • Etymology: The formant seems to point to a placename derived from a personal name and actually [Delamarre, p. 44] posits a personal name Albianos.

Anisus fl., Anisum

Arlape, Arlape fl.

Artobriga

Bedaium

Boiodurum

Canabiaca
  • Place: Zeiselmauer, Zeiselmauer-Wolfpassing, state Niederösterreich, Austria
  • Name: Canabiaca (Not. Dign.)
  • Etymology: Likely a Celtic placename with the typical suffix -acum/-a. However, similarly to Gaulish *Canaviacum (Belgica), the meaning is disputed. It may derive from a personal name *Canavus that seems to exhibit a suffix -ouio or [Delamarre, p. 101] from a personal name *Cando-bios 'shining haxe'. Otherwise, if the town was located on the banks of the Danube, it might have been a small landing place for ferries. The name could then be derived from a Celtic or, even better for the phonetics, Germanic cognate of the IE root *gandh- 'vessel'. Still another hypothesis is that it is the Celtic equivalent of Latin cannabis.

Cetius m., Cetium

Comagena
  • Place: Tulln, state Niederösterreich, Austria
  • Name: Comagena (It. Ant., Peut., Not. Dign.)
  • Etymology: Unclear. [Delamarre, p. 118] posits a personal name *Comagios (as *com-ag-io- 'the fighter').

Cucullae

Ernolatia
  • Place: possibly Sankt-Pankraz, state Oberösterreich, Austria
  • Name: Ernolatia (Peut.)
  • Etymology: Given the suffix, it can be explained [Delamarre, p. 152] with a personal name *Ernolatis ('the furious eagle', from Gaulish *erno- 'eagle' and *latis 'warrior, hero').

Gabromagus

Iuvavum, Iuvavus fl.

Ivesis fl.

Laciacum
  • Place: Mösendorf, Frankenmarkt, state Oberösterreich, Austria
  • Name: Laciacum (It. Ant., Peut.)
  • Etymology: Usually explained [Anreiter, Delamarre, p. 169] from a Celtic personal name *Lacios.

Lauriacum
  • Place: Lorch, Enns, state Oberösterreich, Austria
  • Name: Lauricaum (It. Ant.) Blaboriciacum (Peut.)
  • Etymology: Usually explained [Anreiter, Delamarre, p. 170] from a Celtic personal name *La(g)urios (reconstructed from Gaulish lagu 'small, weak').

Lentia

Namare
  • Place: Melk, state Niederösterreich, Austria
  • Name: Namare (Peut.)
  • Etymology: Unclear. [Delamarre, p. 203] explains it by positing a personal name *Namaris. But it could be related to the IE root *nem- 'to bend' and thus be cognate of Gaulish nantu (< *nem-tu) 'valley'.

Ovilava
  • Place: Wels, state Oberösterreich, Austria
  • Name: Ovilavae (It. Ant.) Ovilia (Peut.)
  • Etymology: Likely a compound name to be analyzed as ovi-laua. However, [Delamarre, p. 213] posits a personal name Ovil(i)os, with a derivation -auo-.

Stiriate
  • Place: possibly Liezen, state Steiermark, Austria
  • Name: Stiriate (Peut.)
  • Etymology: Given the praedial suffix -ate, [Delamarre, p. 243] explains it with the attested personal name Stirios (apparently related to the IE root *aster- 'star').

Stanacum
  • Place: Oberranna, Engelhartszell-an-der-Donau, state Oberösterreich, Austria
  • Name: Stanacum (It. Ant.)
  • Etymology: Given the praedial suffix -aco- [Delamarre, p. 242] posits a personal name *Stannos related to the theonym Stanna.

Surontium

Tarnantone

Tartursanae

Tergolape

Tragisama fl., Tragisamum

Tutatio

Conclusions

The main linguistic strata appearing in Noric toponymy is a Celtic stratum, virtually indistinguishable from Gaulish. This stratum is recognizable for typical appellatives and suffixes.

Like most of the European hydronymy, an Old-European A-language emerges from hydronyms particularly. Likely, this stratum is older than the Celtic one, at least in some parts of the region.

At least one place name with an Etruscan etymology is present in the region south of the Alps belonging to Noricum, which is usually thought as to be representative of a "Rhaetian" (Etruscan) stratum.